Cervical cancer develops slowly. It starts as a pre cancerous condition called dysplasia. This can be detected by a test known as pap smear and is 100% curable. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that is spread through sexual intercourse.
Examination/papsmears/colposcopy/cone biopsies. Many more tests as your doctor advises.
Treatment depends on stage, age of patient, desire to have children etc. Early cancer can be cured by removing cancer tissue and preserving the uterus so that a woman can have children. Other treatment approaches are Radical Hysterectomy, Pelvic Exenteration, Radiation etc.
Gardasil/Cervarix are vaccines to prevent cervical cancer. Studies have shown that they appear to be effective.